Nepal is officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal and a sovereign country situated in south Asia with an area of 147,181 square km and population of approximately 27 million. Nepal is the world's 93rd largest country by land and the 41st most populated country. It is a landlocked country located along the great Himalayas and bordered to the east, south and west by India and to the north by China. Kathmandu is capital city and largest metropolis to the nation.
884km long great Himalaya range inside Nepal out of 2400km, Nepal has the eight peaks of the world's fourteen highest mountains including the highest point on earth, Mount Everest 8848m,( Sagarmatha in Nepali). More than 260 peaks over 6000m above sea level are positioned in Nepal, the southern Tarai region is fertile and humid.
Hinduism is practiced by about 81% of population, the highest percentage of any country. Buddhism is connected historically and archeologically with Nepal and is practiced by 9% of its people, followed by Islam 4%, Kiratism 3%, Christianity 2% and animism 1%. A large group of the population, especially in the hill region, may identify themselves as both Hindu and Buddhist, which can be recognized to the syncretic nature of both faiths in Nepal.
A monarchy all through most of its history, Nepal was ruled by the Shah dynasty from 1768 to 2008,when Prithvi Narayan Shah unified its many small kingdoms at the date of 1760s . A decade-long Maoist war (Communist Party of Nepal), weeks of mass protests by all major political parties, the ensuing elections for the 1st Nepali Constituent Assembly on 28 May 2008 significantly taken the closing down of the monarchy and the establishment of a federal multiparty representative democratic republic. Despite political challenges, this framework remained in place, with the 2nd Nepali Constituent Assembly elected in 2013.
On September 20, 2015, a new constitution was announced by President in the Constituent Assembly. The Constituent Assembly was changed into a parliamentary. The new constitution established Nepal as a federal democratic country by making seven different unnamed states.
Nepal is a developing country with a low income economy, ranking 145th of 187 countries on the Human Development Index in 2014. It is struggling to high levels of hunger and poverty. Despite these challenges, Nepal has been making sound growth as well.
Nepal has five climatic zones, according to the altitudes. The tropical and subtropical zones lie below 1,200 m, the temperate zone 1,200 to 2,400 m, the cold zone 2,400 to 3,600 m, the subarctic zone 3,600 to 4,400 m, and the Arctic zone above 4,400 m.
Nepal practices five seasons: spring, summer, monsoon, autumn and winter. The Himalaya blocks cold winds from Central Asia in the winter and forms the northern limit of the monsoon wind patterns. Deforestation is a major problem in all regions, with resulting erosion and degradation of ecosystems.
Nepal lies completely within collision zone between Indian subcontinent and Eurasia, occupying the central part of the Himalaya arch, nearly one third of 2,400 km long Himalayas.
The Indian plate continues to move north at the rate of roughly 50 mm per year which is very fast given the size of the blocks of Earth's crust consist of. As the strong Indian continental layer beneath the relatively weak Tibetan crust, it pushes up the Himalayan Mountains. This impact zone has put up huge amounts of crustal curbing as the rock sequences slide one over another.
A study from 2015 found a 700-year delay between earthquakes in the region. The study also suggests, that because of tectonic stress transfer, The 2015 earthquake and the earthquake from 1934 are connected - following a historic earthquake pattern.
Nepal remains isolated from the world's major land, within the country, aviation is in a better state, with 47 airports, 17 of them with paved runways, flights are frequent and support a comfortable traffic. The mountain and hilly area in two-thirds of the country has built roads and for other infrastructures difficult and expensive. In 2007 there were just over 10,142 km of cemented roads, and 7,140 km of unpaved road, and one 59 km old railway line in the south.
Almost one-third of population live at least a two hours walk from the nearest all-season road, 73 out of 75 district headquarters are connected by road. In addition, around 60% of road network and most hilly and mountains roads are not operable during the monsoon.
According to the Nepal Telecommunication Authority MIS May 2012 report there are seven operators and the total voice telephony subscribers including fixed and mobile are 16,350,946 which gives a penetration rate of 61.42%. The fixed telephone service account for 9.37%, mobile for 64.63%, and other services (LM, GMPCS) for 3.76% of the total penetration rate. Similarly, the numbers of subscribers to data/internet services are 4,667,536 which represents 17.53% penetration rate. Most of the data service is accounted by GPRS users. Twelve months earlier the data/internet penetration was 10.05%, thus this represents a growth rate of 74.77%.
Not only has there been strong subscriber growth, especially in the mobile sector, but there was evidence of a clear vision in the sector, including putting a reform process in place and planning for the building of necessary telecommunications infrastructure. Most importantly, the Ministry of Information and Communications (MIC) and the telecom regulator, the National Telecommunications Authority (NTA), have both been very active in the performance of their respective roles.
As of 30 September 2012, Nepal has 1,828,700 Facebook users. And of course it is increasing everyday.
The state operates two television stations as well as national and regional radio stations. There are roughly 50 independent TV channels registered, nearly 400 FM radio stations are licensed with roughly 300 operational. According to the 2011 census, the percentage of households possessing radio was 50.82%, television 36.45%, cable TV 19.33%, computer 7.23%. According to the Press Council Nepal, as of 2012 there are 2,038 registered newspapers in Nepal, among which 514 are in publication.
The majority of the Nepalese population 81% follows Hinduism. Shiva is considered as the guardian deity of the nation. Nepal is home to the famous Lord Shiva temple name called Pashupatinath temple where Hindus from all over the world come for worshiping. It is listed in UNESCO World Heritage Site as well.
Lumbini is the other popular site in the south part of Nepal. It is connected historically and archeologically to the lord Buddha. Buddha was born in Lumbini about 563 B.C.
Differences between Hindus and Buddhists have been marginal in Nepal due to the cultural and historical intermingling of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs. Moreover, traditionally Buddhism and Hinduism were never two separate religions in the western sense of the word. In Nepal, the faiths share common temples and worship common deities. Among other natives of Nepal, those more influenced by Hinduism. Hindu influence is less prominent among the other groups who employ Buddhist monks for their religious ceremonies. Most of the festivals in Nepal are related to Hindu. Islam, Christianity, Kirati and Animism are also in practice in minority.
Folktale is an integral part of Nepali society. Traditional stories and culture are rooted in day-to-day life, tales of love, affection and battles as well as demons and ghosts thus reflects in their lifestyles, cultures and beliefs. Many Nepali folktales are passed through the medium of dance and music. So dance and music regulates in their lives.
The majority houses in the rural lowlands of Nepal are made up of a tight bamboo framework and walls of a mud and cow-dung mix. These dwellings remain cool in summer and retain warmth in winter. Houses in the hills are usually made of unbaked bricks with thatch or tile roofing. At high elevations construction changes to stone masonry and slate may be used on roofs. But now they are very careful to build houses especially in hilly and mountains area after devastating earthquake of 2015.
Nepal's flag is most different than other nation’s flag; this is the only national flag in the world that is not rectangular in shape. The constitution of Nepal has instructions for a geometric creation of the flag. According to its official description, the red in the flag stands for victory in war or courage, and is also the color of the national flower Rhododendron. Red also stands for aggression and brave. The flag's blue border signifies peace. The curved moon on the flag is a symbol of the peaceful and calm nature of Nepali, while the sun represents the aggressiveness of Nepali warriors.
The basic Nepali meal is Dal Bhat. Dal is a lentil soup, and is served over bhat (boiled rice), with curry and achar (spicy pickles). It consists of non-vegetarian as well as vegetarian items. Mustard oil and ghee are common cooking medium and spices including cumin, coriander, black pepper, sesame seeds, turmeric, garlic, ginger, fenugreek, bay leaves, cinnamon, chilies and mustard seeds are used in cooking. Mo:mo: is a type of steamed dumpling with meat or vegetable fillings, and is a popular fast food in many regions of Nepal nowadays.
Beef meat is extremely prohibited in Nepal. Poultry chicken, buffalo, mutton, lamb, pork, fish are common to eat in urban area and mostly vegetables are cooked in countryside. More than 120different ethnicity in Nepal, most of them have their own culture to cook food which are very amazing, unfortunately those are not in menu of big hotels and restaurants.